Country Official Name: Republic of Turkey
Official Language: Turkish
Government: Democratic, secular and social Republic
Major Cities: Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa, Adana, Trabzon, Malatya Provinces: The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. The provinces are organized into 7 regions. The regions include: The Marmara Region, The Aegean Region, The Mediterranean Region, The Central Anatolia Region, The Black Sea Region, The East Anatolia Region, and The Southeast Anatolia Region.
Holidays: January 1 New Year's Day, April 23 National Sovereignty and Children's Day, May 1 Labour and Solidarity Day, May 19 Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day, August 30 Victory Day, October 29 Republic Day, After the end of Islamic month Ramadan Ramadan Feast, Begins on the tenth day of the Islamic month Dhu'l-Hijjah Sacrifice Feast.
Airport: Istanbul Ataturk Airport
Religion: Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Secularism
Area: 783,562 km2 (37th)
Area under Rice Cultivation: 99400 ha
Rice Production Season: 1. Planting: Apr.-June 2. Harvesting: Sep.-Oct.
Agricultural Website: www.tarim.gov.tr/Eng
Population: 77,695,904 (18th)
Currency: Turkish Lira (TRY)
Calling Code: +90
Introduction. Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a contiguous transcontinental parliamentary republic largely located in Western Asia with the portion ofEastern Thrace in Southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.The country's official language is Turkish, a Turkic language spoken natively by approximately 85 percent of the population. Turkey's growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power. The name of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye) is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkicinscriptions of the Göktürks (Celestial Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century). The English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14 century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia.
Geography. Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. Asian Turkey, which includes 97 percent of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. European Turkey comprises 3 percent of the country. The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape. It lies between latitudes 35° and 43° N, and longitudes 25° and 45° E. Turkey's area, including lakes, occupies 783,562 square kilometers (300,948 sq. mi), of which 755,688 square kilometers (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometers (9,174 sq. mi) in Europe. Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest. Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east, along which a major earthquake occurred in 1999.
Climate. The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winter. The coastal areas bordering the Black Sea have a temperate Oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,200 millimetres (87 in) annually which is the highest precipitation in the country. The coastal areas bordering the Sea of Marmara, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate Oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Snow falls on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but usually melts in no more than a few days. However snow is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Winters on the eastern part of the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C (−22 to −40 °F) can occur in eastern Anatolia. Snow may remain at least 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C (34 °F). Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures often above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimeters (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall is often less than 300 millimeters (12 in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.
Agriculture. Total agricultural land in Turkey is 38 428 thousand hectares. Distribution of agricultural land in Turkey, 2013, area of cereals and the other crop products is 19 766 thousand hectares (52%), area of vegetable garden is 808 thousand hectares (2%), area of fruits, beverage and spice crops is 3 232 thousand hectares (8%), land under permanent meadows an pastures is 14 617 thousand hectares (38%) and area of ornamental plants is 5 thousand hectares (0%). The suitable ecological conditions and climate for agricultural production allow to grow wide variety of fruit and vegetables in Turkey. Turkey is the 7 the largest agricultural producer in the word and largest one in Europe with 62 billion USD agricultural revenues. World's largest producer of apricot, hazelnuts, figs and cherries, quinces in 2012. In the agricultural sector, the rate of crop production is 71,3% and animal product rate is 28,7%. Twenty three percent of Turkey's population is employed in agriculture. Turkey is a major producer of wheat, sugar beet, milk, whole fresh cow, tomatoes, barley, grapes, maize, watermelons and apple. Turkey's top three agricultural export products are wheat flour, tomatoes, lemons and limes. On the other hand, Turkeys top three agricultural import products are wheat, soybeans and the oil types sunflower seed. Turkey is a net exporter of food and beverage products. Food and beverage exports was 9,5 billion USD and food and beverage import was 5,1 billion USD in 2012. The main destination of exports are Iraq, Germany, UK, Netherland, USA and the main sources of imports are Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Indonesia, USA. The main export items are processed fruits and vegetable and animal oils. The main import items are vegetable and animal oils, meat and meat products. Although it is decreasing from year to year, the importance of agricultures in Turkish economy is still high in terms of meeting needed food, supplying input to the industry, export and employment opportunities. The share of agricultural in gross national product (GNP) was 72,8%, when Turkey was founded, it decreased to 36% in 1970 and to 25% in 1980. It was 16% in 1990, 13,5% in 2000, 12,6% in 2003 and 7,4 in 2013, respectively.
Rice. is not the staple food in Turkey, however, it is consumed a certain amount per capita, 8 kg per year. Rice growing area was around 44 thousand hectare in 1990’s and it increased to more than 100 thousand hectare, it was around 110 thousand hectare in 2014. On the other hand, rice production was 220 tons, and it increased to more than 800 thousand tons in the last years. It means more than 500 tons increases. Increases in both cultivating area and production were due to the development of high yielding varieties and improved crop management, specially using laser controlled leveller for levelling the rice fields. There are seven geographical regions in Turkey, and rice can be cultivated in all regions in the 35 provinces out of 81. The main rice growing regions are Trakya-Marmara and Black Sea. The main rice growing provinces are Edirne, Samsun, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, Çorum, Çankırı, Sinop and Tekirdağ. Irrigation water shortage is a limited factor for expanding the rice growing area. Therefore, the domestic rice production is not enough for the local consumption, and Turkey still has to import rice around 100-150 thousand tons every year. As a result of rice breeding programme, eight rice varieties developed using introduction method, 42 varieties were bred utilising crossing method, and 2 varieties through mutation breeding, totally 52 rice varieties were developed up to now. The most popular local developed rice variety in Turkey is Osmancık-97, it is grown in more than 70% of total 110 000 ha rice cultivating area. It has high rice and milled yield potential, tolerance to blast disease, long and translucent grain, good eating quality for Turkish consumer. Osmancık-97 is well known not only in Turkey, but also in the other countries. It is also cultivated in the neighbouring countries such as Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine, and Greece etc. The rice farmers can harvest 10 to 12 ton rice yield using the other new developed high yielding varieties such as Kızıltan, Halilbey, Çakmak, Yatkın, and Sürek M711 etc. in the last years. Rice is cultivated under irrigated-lowland and continuous flooding conditions. Irrıgation period is between 110 and 120 days. The planting method is direct seeding into standing water. All cultivated rice varieties belong to Japonica group.